What is fibromyalgia and its physical therapy ?

Fibromyalgia is a chronic condition characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain, accompanied by fatigue, sleep, memory, and mood issues. Despite being a common condition, it’s often misunderstood due to its complex nature and the lack of visible symptoms.


Fibromyalgia is a long-term condition that causes widespread pain and tenderness throughout the body. It can also cause fatigue, sleep problems, mood problems, and difficulty thinking and concentrating.

The exact cause of fibromyalgia is unknown, but it’s thought to be related to abnormal processing of pain signals in the brain and spinal cord.  Women are more likely to develop fibromyalgia than men, and it often begins between the ages of 25 and 55. There is no cure for fibromyalgia, but there are treatments that can help manage the symptoms

What are symptoms of fibromyalgia?


  1. Widespread Pain: The hallmark symptom of fibromyalgia is widespread pain that affects the entire body, typically described as a constant dull ache.
  2. Fatigue: Individuals with fibromyalgia often experience profound fatigue, even after a full night’s sleep.
  3. Sleep Disturbances: Sleep disturbances, including difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep, are common in fibromyalgia.
  4. Cognitive Difficulties: Often referred to as “fibro fog,” cognitive difficulties such as memory problems and difficulty concentrating are prevalent.
  5. Other Symptoms: Other symptoms may include headaches, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), stiffness, numbness or tingling in the hands and feet, and sensitivity to noise, lights, or temperature.

What are main causes of fibromyalgia?


The exact cause of fibromyalgia remains unknown, but various factors may contribute to its development, including:

  1. Genetics: There is evidence suggesting a genetic predisposition to fibromyalgia, as it tends to run in families.
  2. Physical or Emotional Trauma: Trauma, such as car accidents or repetitive injuries, can trigger fibromyalgia in some individuals. Additionally, psychological stress may also play a role.
  3. Abnormal Pain Processing: People with fibromyalgia may have abnormalities in the way their central nervous system processes pain signals, leading to an increased sensitivity to pain.

Differential diagnosis:

Fibromyalgia is a condition that causes widespread pain and tenderness in the body, along with fatigue, sleep problems, and mood problems. There is no single test to diagnose fibromyalgia, so doctors rely on a differential diagnosis to rule out other possible conditions that could be causing the symptoms.

Here are some of the most common conditions that are included in a differential diagnosis for fibromyalgia:

  1. Polymyalgia rheumatica: This condition causes pain and stiffness in the muscles around the shoulders and hips. It can also cause fatigue and fever.
  2. Lupus: Lupus is an autoimmune disease that can cause inflammation in many parts of the body, including the muscles, joints, skin, and kidneys.
  3. Rheumatoid arthritis: Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease that causes inflammation in the joints.
  4. Osteoarthritis: Osteoarthritis is a type of arthritis that causes the breakdown of cartilage in the joints.
  5. Hypothyroidism: Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone. Thyroid hormone helps to regulate metabolism, so hypothyroidism can cause fatigue, weight gain, and muscle weakness.
  6. Chronic fatigue syndrome: Chronic fatigue syndrome is a condition that causes extreme fatigue that lasts for at least six months. Chronic fatigue syndrome can also cause sleep problems, pain, and difficulty concentrating.
  7. Myofascial pain syndrome: Myofascial pain syndrome is a condition that causes pain and tenderness in trigger points in the muscles. Trigger points are small, tight knots in the muscles.

A doctor will typically ask about a person’s medical history and symptoms, and perform a physical exam. They may also order blood tests or other tests to rule out other conditions. If there is no other underlying condition that can explain the symptoms, a doctor may diagnose fibromyalgia.

How to manage fibromyalgia?


While there is no cure for fibromyalgia, management strategies aim to alleviate symptoms and improve quality of life:

  1. Medications: Pain relievers, antidepressants, and anti-seizure medications may be prescribed to manage pain, improve sleep, and reduce symptoms.
  2. Lifestyle Changes: Regular exercise, stress management techniques, and maintaining a healthy sleep routine can help manage symptoms.
  3. Therapies: Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) can be beneficial in managing pain, improving function, and coping with the emotional impact of fibromyalgia.
  4. Alternative Therapies: Some individuals find relief through acupuncture, massage therapy, yoga, or dietary changes, although evidence supporting their effectiveness varies.

Physical therapy:

Fibromyalgia is a chronic condition that causes widespread pain and tenderness throughout the body, along with fatigue, sleep problems, memory and mood issues. While there is no cure for fibromyalgia, physical therapy can be a very effective treatment option to help manage the symptoms and improve your quality of life.


Benefits of physical therapy for fibromyalgia:

  1. Reduces pain and stiffness
  2. Improves flexibility and range of motion
  3. Increases strength and endurance
  4. Improves sleep quality
  5. Reduces fatigue
  6. Improves mood and reduces anxiety
  7. Helps you manage stress

What to expect during physical therapy for fibromyalgia?

A physical therapist will work with you to develop a personalized treatment plan that addresses your specific symptoms and needs. Treatment may include:

Aerobic exercise:

Regular exercise is essential for managing fibromyalgia. Your physical therapist can help you develop a safe and effective exercise program that includes aerobic activities, such as walking, swimming, or biking.

Aerobic exercise is one of the best things you can do to manage fibromyalgia. It can help improve your:

  1. Pain
  2. Fatigue
  3. Sleep
  4. Mood
  5. Overall function


There are many different types of aerobic exercise that you can choose from. The best ones for you will depend on your fitness level and your symptoms. Here are a few good options:

  1. Walking: Walking is a great low-impact exercise that is easy on your joints. You can start by walking for short periods of time and gradually increase the duration and intensity of your walks as you get stronger.
  2. Swimming: Swimming is another low-impact exercise that is easy on your joints. It’s also a great way to cool down on a hot day.
  3. Cycling: Cycling is a great way to get some exercise outdoors. If you find riding a bike outdoors too difficult, you can also try riding a stationary bike.
  4. Water aerobics: Water aerobics is a great way to get a good workout without putting too much stress on your joints. There are many different water aerobics classes available, so you can find one that fits your fitness level.

Additional Tips:

Here are some additional tips for getting started with aerobic exercise if you have fibromyalgia:

  1. Find an activity that you enjoy. You’re more likely to stick with an exercise program if you enjoy doing it.
  2. Set realistic goals. Don’t try to do too much too soon. Start with short workouts and gradually increase the duration and intensity as you get stronger.
  3. Listen to your body. If you experience pain, stop the activity and rest.
  4. Warm up before you exercise and cool down afterward.
  5. Stay hydrated by drinking plenty of fluids before, during, and after your workouts.

Strength training:

Strength training can help improve your muscle strength and endurance, which can reduce pain and improve your ability to perform daily activities.

Strength training can be a great way to manage symptoms of fibromyalgia, even though exercise can sometimes feel daunting.

Why helpful:

Here’s why it can be helpful:

  1. Stronger muscles: Stronger muscles can better support your joints, reducing pain and improving function.
  2. Improved balance: Strength training can help improve balance, which can reduce the risk of falls.
  3. Pain management: Exercise, in general, can help improve pain management by promoting the release of endorphins, the body’s natural painkillers.

Additional Tips:

Here are some tips for getting started with strength training if you have fibromyalgia:

  1. Start slow and listen to your body: Don’t overdo it. Begin with low weights or bodyweight exercises and gradually increase the intensity and duration of your workouts as you tolerate it.
  2. Focus on proper form: This is important to avoid injury. Consider working with a certified personal trainer who can help you develop a safe and effective exercise program.
  3. Low-impact exercises: Exercises like bodyweight squats, lunges, wall pushes, and isometric exercises (tensing muscles without movement) can be a great way to start. Resistance bands can also be a good option.
  4. Pay attention to pain: If you experience pain during an exercise, stop and modify it or try a different exercise.

Flexibility exercises:

 Stretching can help improve your flexibility and range of motion, which can reduce pain and stiffness.

Exercise can be a great tool to manage fibromyalgia symptoms, including improving flexibility and reducing stiffness. Here are some tips to get you started:

  1. Gentle is key: When it comes to fibromyalgia, listen to your body. Focus on gentle stretches and avoid pushing yourself to the point of pain.
  2. Start slow and gradually increase: Begin with short stretches (20-30 seconds) and work your way up to longer holds (around a minute) as tolerated. Gradually increase the frequency of your routine as well.
  3. Focus on breath: Breathe deeply and slowly throughout each stretch. Inhale as you ease into the position, and exhale as you hold it.
  4. Warm muscles respond better: If possible, do some light activity like walking for 5-10 minutes before stretching to warm up your muscles.


Here are some examples of flexibility exercises for fibromyalgia:

  1. Neck stretches: Gently roll your head in a circular motion, first one way and then the other. You can also do side bends by bringing your ear towards your shoulder, hold for a breath, then repeat on the other side.
  2. Arm circles: Make small circles with your arms, forward and backward.
  3. Shoulder rolls: Roll your shoulders forward and backward, several times in each direction.
  4. Torso twists: Sit in a chair and gently twist your torso from side to side, reaching one arm behind you for a deeper stretch.
  5. Leg stretches: Try gentle quad stretches (pulling your foot towards your glutes), hamstring stretches (reaching for your toes while seated), and calf stretches (leaning against a wall with one leg forward).

Manual therapy:

Manual therapy techniques, such as massage and joint mobilization, can help relieve pain and improve muscle function.

Manual therapy is a type of hands-on treatment that can be helpful for people with fibromyalgia. It involves a variety of techniques that can help to relieve pain, improve flexibility, and reduce muscle tension.


There are many different types of manual therapy, and the best type for you will depend on your individual symptoms. Some of the most common types of manual therapy used for fibromyalgia include:

  1. Massage therapy: Massage therapy can help to relax muscles, improve circulation, and reduce pain. There are many different types of massage, so you can find one that is right for you.
  2. Myofascial release: Myofascial release is a type of massage therapy that focuses on releasing tension in the fascia, which is the connective tissue that surrounds muscles.
  3. Trigger point therapy: Trigger point therapy is a type of massage therapy that focuses on releasing trigger points, which are small knots of muscle that can cause pain.
  4. Joint mobilization: Joint mobilization is a type of manual therapy that helps to improve the range of motion in your joints.


Here are some of the benefits of manual therapy for fibromyalgia:

  1. Reduced pain
  2. Improved flexibility
  3. Reduced muscle tension
  4. Improved sleep
  5. Improved mood


Electrotherapy is a broad term that refers to using electrical currents to treat medical conditions. There are several different types of electrotherapy that have been studied for use in managing fibromyalgia pain, including:

  1. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS): TENS is a type of electrotherapy that uses low-voltage electrical currents to stimulate the nerves. TENS units are small, battery-powered devices that can be used at home. The electrodes are placed on the skin near the area of pain. The TENS unit sends mild electrical pulses through the electrodes, which may help to block pain signals from reaching the brain. Studies have shown that TENS can be effective in reducing pain and improving function in people with fibromyalgia.
  2. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES): CES is a type of electrotherapy that uses low-voltage electrical currents to stimulate the brain. CES devices are typically used in a doctor’s office or clinic. The electrodes are placed on the earlobes or forehead. The CES device sends mild electrical pulses through the electrodes, which may help to improve mood and sleep, and reduce pain. Studies on the effectiveness of CES for fibromyalgia are mixed.
  3. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS): rTMS is a type of electrotherapy that uses magnetic fields to stimulate the brain. rTMS is a more powerful form of brain stimulation than CES. rTMS is typically used in a doctor’s office or clinic. The rTMS coil is placed over the head, near the area of the brain that is thought to be involved in pain processing. The rTMS coil emits magnetic pulses that stimulate the brain cells. Studies on the effectiveness of rTMS for fibromyalgia are limited.

Electrotherapy is generally considered to be a safe and well-tolerated treatment for fibromyalgia. However, it is important to talk to your doctor before starting any type of electrotherapy treatment. Electrotherapy may not be right for everyone, and there may be some side effects, such as skin irritation or itching.

What are Preventive measures for fibromyalgia?

Preventive measures:

Preventive measures for fibromyalgia typically focus on managing symptoms and reducing triggers. Here are some strategies:

  1. Regular exercise: Engage in low-impact activities like walking, swimming, or yoga to improve muscle strength and flexibility.
  2. Stress management: Practice relaxation techniques such as deep breathing, meditation, or mindfulness to reduce stress levels.
  3. Adequate sleep: Establish a consistent sleep schedule and create a relaxing bedtime routine to improve sleep quality.
  4. Balanced diet: Eat a nutritious diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean proteins to support overall health and well-being.
  5. Avoiding triggers: Identify and avoid triggers such as certain foods, environmental factors, or activities that exacerbate symptoms.
  6. Pace yourself: Avoid overexertion and learn to prioritize tasks to prevent flare-ups of symptoms.
  7. Support network: Build a strong support network of friends, family, and healthcare professionals who can provide emotional support and practical assistance.
  8. Alternative therapies: Explore complementary therapies like acupuncture, massage, or physical therapy to help manage pain and improve function.
  9. Medication management: Work closely with your healthcare provider to develop an individualized treatment plan that may include medications to alleviate symptoms.
  10. Regular check-ups: Stay proactive in managing your condition by attending regular check-ups with your healthcare provider to monitor symptoms and adjust treatment as needed.


Fibromyalgia is a complex and often debilitating condition that requires a multidisciplinary approach to management. While living with fibromyalgia can be challenging, with proper treatment and support, many individuals can effectively manage their symptoms and lead fulfilling lives. Early diagnosis and intervention are key to improving outcomes and reducing the impact of fibromyalgia on daily functioning.

FAQ’s :

Is physiotherapy helpful for fibromyalgia?

Yes, physiotherapy can be a very helpful treatment for fibromyalgia. Physiotherapy focuses on improving  mobility, reducing pain, and restoring function. It can help people with fibromyalgia manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.

Here are some of the ways that physiotherapy can help with fibromyalgia:

  1. Exercise: Regular exercise is one of the most important parts of a fibromyalgia treatment plan. Physiotherapists can help people with fibromyalgia develop an exercise program that is safe and effective for them. This may include aerobic exercise, strength training, and flexibility exercises.
  2. Manual therapy: Manual therapy is a type of physical therapy that involves using hands-on techniques to improve pain and stiffness. This may include massage, joint mobilization, and trigger point therapy.
  3. Education: Physiotherapists can also teach people with fibromyalgia about their condition and how to manage their symptoms. This may include information on posture, relaxation techniques, and pacing.

Which exercise is best for fibromyalgia?

There isn’t one single “best” exercise for fibromyalgia, but there are several types that have been shown to be very helpful in managing symptoms.

Here are some of the best exercises for fibromyalgia:

  1. Aerobic exercise: This includes activities that get your heart rate up and keep it up for a sustained period of time. Walking, swimming, biking, and water aerobics are all great options.
  2. Strength training: This type of exercise helps to build muscle strength and endurance. You can do strength training with weights, resistance bands, or even your own body weight.
  3. Flexibility exercises: These exercises help to improve your range of motion and can help to reduce pain and stiffness. Yoga, tai chi, and Pilates are all good options.

Should you walk a lot with fibromyalgia?

Walking can be a great form of exercise for people with fibromyalgia. In fact, studies have shown that regular walking can help improve symptoms of fibromyalgia, such as pain, fatigue, and sleep problems.


Here are some of the benefits of walking for people with fibromyalgia:

  1. Improves pain: Walking can help to improve pain by increasing blood flow and circulation to the muscles. This can help to reduce muscle stiffness and pain.
  2. Reduces fatigue: Walking can help to improve energy levels and reduce fatigue. This is because exercise helps to improve the body’s ability to use oxygen.
  3. Improves sleep: Walking can help to improve sleep quality. This is because exercise can help to tire the body and promote relaxation.

Of course, it’s important to listen to your body and start slowly. If you’re new to walking, start with short walks and gradually increase the duration and intensity of your walks as you’re able. It’s also important to choose a comfortable walking surface, such as a soft track or a park path.

Additional Tips:

Here are some tips for walking with fibromyalgia:

  1. Start slowly and gradually increase the duration and intensity of your walks.
  2. Listen to your body and take breaks when you need them.
  3. Choose a comfortable walking surface.
  4. Wear supportive shoes.
  5. Walk with a friend or family member for motivation and safety.


+ posts

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *