male infertility

What are causes and treatment for male infertility?

Male infertility is a significant concern for couples trying to conceive. While the focus often falls on female fertility, it’s essential to recognize the role men play in the process. Understanding male infertility and adopting strategies to improve fertility can enhance the chances of conception and fulfill the dream of starting a family.

What is male infertility?

Male infertility:

Male infertility refers to the inability of a man to achieve pregnancy in a fertile female partner after one year of unprotected intercourse. Several factors contribute to male infertility, including sperm production issues, blockages in the reproductive tract, hormonal imbalances, and lifestyle factors.


Male infertility can be caused by various factors, including:

  1. Low sperm count: The most common cause of male infertility. It can be due to hormonal imbalances, genetic factors, or lifestyle choices such as smoking or excessive alcohol consumption.
  2. Poor sperm motility: Sperm that don’t swim properly may have difficulty reaching and fertilizing the egg.
  3. Abnormal sperm morphology: Sperm with abnormal shape or size may have difficulty penetrating the egg.
  4. Erectile dysfunction: Difficulty achieving or maintaining an erection can hinder sexual intercourse and sperm delivery.
  5. Varicocele: Swollen veins in the scrotum can overheat the testicles, affecting sperm production.
  6. Infections: Certain infections, such as sexually transmitted infections, can interfere with sperm production or function.
  7. Genetic factors: Conditions such as Klinefelter syndrome or Y-chromosome microdeletions can cause infertility.


Signs and symptoms of male infertility may include:

  1. Difficulty conceiving: Couples unable to conceive after a year of regular, unprotected sex may suspect infertility.
  2. Sexual problems: Erectile dysfunction, ejaculation disorders, or painful intercourse can indicate potential fertility issues.
  3. Changes in sexual desire: A decrease in libido might be a sign of hormonal imbalances or other underlying issues.
  4. Testicular pain or swelling: Conditions such as varicocele or infections can cause discomfort or swelling in the testicles.
  5. Hormonal imbalances

Symptoms like decreased facial or body hair, gynecomastia (enlarged breasts), or abnormal secondary sexual characteristics may suggest hormonal issues affecting fertility.

  1. Medical history: Previous surgeries, injuries to the genital area, or exposure to toxins can contribute to infertility.

 Risk factor:

There are several risk factors for male infertility. These can be broadly categorized into lifestyle factors, medical conditions, and environmental factors.

Lifestyle factors:

  1. Smoking: Tobacco use has been shown to damage sperm and also to limit the chances of survival for embryos that are created.
  2. Excessive alcohol consumption: Drinking to excess can lower testosterone levels and cause erectile dysfunction .
  3. Illegal drug use: Marijuana use can lower sperm count and quality, and cocaine and heroin can damage sperm production.
  4. Obesity: Being overweight or obese can lower sperm quality and testosterone levels.
  5. Poor diet: A diet low in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains and high in processed foods, unhealthy fats, and sugary drinks can contribute to infertility.
  6. Stress: Chronic stress can disrupt hormone production and sperm function.

Medical conditions:

  1. Undescended testicles: If one or both testicles fail to descend from the abdomen into the scrotum before birth, it can impair sperm production.
  2. Varicocele: This is a condition in which the veins in the scrotum become enlarged, which can increase the temperature of the testicles and damage sperm production.
  3. Infection: Infections of the testicles, epididymis (the tube that stores sperm), or prostate can damage sperm production and transport.
  4. Chronic illnesses: Certain chronic health conditions, such as cystic fibrosis, diabetes, and kidney disease, can impair sperm production.
  5. Genetic disorders: Some genetic disorders, such as Klinefelter syndrome, can cause infertility.

Environmental factors:

  1. Exposure to toxins: Exposure to environmental toxins, such as pesticides, herbicides, and heavy metals, can damage sperm production.
  2. Radiation or chemotherapy: These treatments can damage sperm production.
  3. Overheating the testicles: This can be caused by frequent use of hot tubs, saunas, or tight-fitting clothing.

Conditions related to male infertility:

There are a number of conditions that can contribute to male infertility. Here are some of the most common:

  1. Sperm disorders: This is the most common cause of male infertility. It can include low sperm count (oligospermia), poor sperm motility (the ability of sperm to move), or abnormal sperm morphology (shape).
  2. Varicoceles: Varicoceles are enlarged veins in the scrotum. They can increase the temperature of the testicles, which can damage sperm production.
  3. Undescended testicles: If one or both testicles do not descend into the scrotum before birth, it can lead to infertility.
  4. Hormonal imbalances: Low testosterone levels or imbalances in other hormones can affect sperm production.
  5. Blockages: Blockages in the tubes that carry sperm can prevent sperm from reaching the semen. This can be caused by infections, inflammation, or prior surgeries.
  6. Medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as cystic fibrosis, celiac disease, and chronic illnesses, can affect sperm production or function.
  7. Medications: Some medications, such as chemotherapy drugs and anabolic steroids, can impair sperm production.
  8. Lifestyle factors: Smoking, alcohol use, illegal drug use, and obesity can all contribute to male infertility.
  9. Environmental factors: Exposure to toxins, such as pesticides and heavy metals, can also damage sperm.

What are possible treatment for male infertility?

There are a number of treatments available for male infertility, depending on the underlying cause. Here are some of the most common:

  1. Lifestyle changes: These can include quitting smoking, reducing alcohol consumption, losing weight if overweight, and avoiding excessive heat. Certain medications, such as anabolic steroids, can also impair sperm production.
  2. Medications: In some cases, medications can be used to treat hormonal imbalances or infections that are contributing to infertility.
  3. Surgery: Surgery may be an option if there is a blockage in the reproductive tract, such as a varicocele (enlarged veins in the scrotum).

Assisted reproductive technology (ART):  ART procedures can help couples conceive when other treatments are not successful.  There are several different types of ART, including:

  1. Intrauterine insemination (IUI):During IUI, sperm are washed and concentrated, and then inserted into the woman’s uterus around the time of ovulation.
  2. In vitro fertilization (IVF):During IVF, eggs are retrieved from the woman’s ovaries and fertilized with sperm in a laboratory dish. The fertilized eggs (embryos) are then implanted in the woman’s uterus.
  3. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI):ICSI is a type of IVF in which a single sperm is injected directly into an egg. ICSI is used when the man has very low sperm count or motility.

The best course of treatment for male infertility will vary depending on the individual circumstances. It is important to see a doctor to get a diagnosis and discuss treatment options.

How to improve male fertility?

Healthy Lifestyle Choices:

There are a number of healthy lifestyle choices that men can make to improve their fertility. Here are a few of the most important:

  1. Maintain a healthy weight. Being overweight or obese can lower sperm quality. Aim for a healthy body mass index (BMI) of 18.5 to 24.9.
  2. Eat a healthy diet. A diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains can provide the nutrients needed for sperm production. Men should also limit their intake of processed foods, unhealthy fats, and sugary drinks.
  3. Exercise regularly. Exercise can improve sperm quality and increase testosterone levels. However, avoid excessive exercise, as this can have the opposite effect.
  4. Get enough sleep. Aim for 7-8 hours of sleep each night.
  5. Manage stress. Stress can lower sperm quality. Find healthy ways to manage stress, such as yoga or meditation.
  6. Avoid smoking and second hand smoke. Smoking can damage sperm and reduce fertility.
  7. Limit alcohol intake. Heavy alcohol consumption can lower sperm quality.
  8. Avoid illegal drugs. Illegal drugs can damage sperm production and fertility.
  9. Keep your testicles cool. Avoid wearing tight-fitting clothing or sitting for long periods of time.

Maintain a Healthy Weight:

 Maintaining a healthy weight is one of the key factors for improving male fertility. Here’s why it’s important and what you can do:

Impact of Weight on Sperm:

  1. Studies suggest a link between higher Body Mass Index (BMI) and lower sperm count and quality.
  2. Both overweight and underweight men can have decreased sperm production.

Reaching a Healthy Weight:

  1. Aim for a BMI in the normal range, typically between 20 and 25.
  2. Focus on gradual weight loss through healthy eating and exercise, rather than crash diets.

Improving Sperm Health:

  1. Shedding excess weight can improve sperm concentration and motility.
  2. A balanced diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains provides essential nutrients for sperm health.

Additional Tips:

  1. Talk to your doctor about your weight and fertility goals.
  2. They can assess your BMI and recommend a safe weight loss plan if needed.
  3. Regular exercise is beneficial for overall health and sperm production.

Manage Stress:

Dealing with infertility can be stressful, and that stress can create a vicious cycle for men. Here are some tips to help manage stress and potentially improve male fertility:

  1. Acknowledge your feelings: Bottling up emotions won’t help. Talk to your partner, a trusted friend, therapist, or support group about what you’re going through.
  2. Practice relaxation techniques: Techniques like meditation, deep breathing exercises, and yoga can help reduce stress and anxiety. There are many apps available to guide you through these practices.
  3. Focus on physical health: Eating a healthy diet, getting enough sleep, and exercising regularly are all important for reducing stress and improving overall health. Exercise can also improve sperm quality.
  4. Limit alcohol and drugs: These substances can worsen stress and sperm health.
  5. Spend time with loved ones: Social connection is important for mental well-being. Make time for activities you enjoy with friends and family.

Avoid Excessive Heat:

Prolonged exposure to high temperatures, such as hot tubs, saunas, or tight-fitting underwear, can impair sperm production and cause male infertility. Opt for loose-fitting clothing and avoid activities that expose the genital area to excessive heat. Excessive heat can negatively impact male fertility by affecting sperm production. Here’s why:

  1. Sperm dislikes heat: Testicles are located outside the body because sperm production thrives in a cooler temperature, a few degrees lower than body temperature.
  2. Heat damages sperm: When the scrotum gets too hot, sperm production can decrease, and the sperm that are produced may be abnormally shaped or less motile, reducing their ability to fertilize an egg.

How to avoid:

Here are some ways to avoid excessive heat for better sperm health:

  1. Loosen up: Wear loose-fitting, breathable clothing like boxers instead of briefs. This allows for air circulation and keeps things cooler down there.
  2. Beat the heat: Limit exposure to hot environments like saunas, hot tubs, or very hot baths. Enjoy them briefly if you must, but prioritize cooler activities.
  3. Hydration is key: Staying well-hydrated helps regulate body temperature. Drink plenty of fluids throughout the day.
  4. Mind your work: If your job involves a lot of heat exposure, take breaks in cool areas when possible.

Limit Exposure to Toxins:

Environmental toxins such as pesticides, heavy metals, and chemicals found in certain plastics can impact sperm quality and cause male infertility. Minimize exposure to these toxins whenever possible, and consider using organic products. Environmental toxins can negatively impact sperm production and quality, contributing to male infertility. Here are some ways to limit toxin exposure:

  1. Diet: Choose organic fruits and vegetables whenever possible to avoid pesticide residues. Opt for lean protein sources and limit processed foods that may contain hormones and other contaminants.
  2. Occupational hazards: If your job involves exposure to chemicals, solvents, or heavy metals, wear appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) and follow safety protocols.
  3. Lifestyle habits: Avoid smoking, second hand smoke, and excessive alcohol consumption. These habits can damage sperm and reduce fertility.
  4. Consumer products: Consider using BPA-free containers for food and beverages. Phthalates are also found in some plastics, so choose glass, stainless steel, or ceramic containers whenever possible. Be mindful of cosmetics and personal care products that may contain harmful chemicals.
  5. Home environment: Reduce exposure to lead by avoiding products with lead paint or lead solder.  Test your home for radon, a naturally occurring radioactive gas.

It’s important to note that completely eliminating toxin exposure may not be possible. However, by taking these steps, you can significantly reduce your risk and improve your chances of conceiving

Regular Exercise:

Regular exercise can be a great way to improve overall health and well-being, and there’s growing evidence that it can also play a role in male fertility. Studies have shown that men who engage in regular physical activity tend to have higher sperm counts, better sperm motility (movement), and improved sperm morphology (shape).


Here’s how exercise can benefit male fertility:

  1. Improves hormone balance: Exercise helps regulate hormone levels, including testosterone, which is essential for sperm production.
  2. Reduces inflammation: Chronic inflammation can damage sperm production. Exercise helps reduce inflammation throughout the body.
  3. Weight management: Maintaining a healthy weight is important for male fertility. Exercise can help you lose weight or maintain a healthy weight.
  4. Improves blood flow: Exercise improves blood flow throughout the body, including to the testicles. This can help deliver oxygen and nutrients to sperm-producing cells.

Types of exercise for male fertility:

The best type of exercise for male fertility is moderate-intensity exercise that you can do for at least 30 minutes most days of the week. Here are some good options:

  1. Cardio: Aim for at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity cardio or 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity cardio each week. Examples of moderate-intensity cardio include brisk walking, biking, swimming, and dancing.
  2. Strength training: Strength training can help you build muscle and improve your overall fitness. Aim for strength training exercises that work all major muscle groups at least twice a week.

It’s important to avoid overtraining, as this can actually have negative effects on sperm production. If you’re new to exercise, start slowly and gradually increase the intensity and duration of your workouts. Be sure to listen to your body and take rest days when you need them.

Additional Tips:

Here are some additional tips for improving male fertility:

  1. Maintain a healthy weight.
  2. Eat a healthy diet.
  3. Limit alcohol consumption.
  4. Don’t smoke.
  5. Manage stress.

Keep your testicles cool. Avoid wearing tight-fitting clothing or spending too much time in hot tubs or saunas.

Stay Hydrated:

Adequate hydration is essential for sperm production and overall reproductive health. Aim to drink plenty of water throughout the day to support optimal fertility. Here’s how:

  1. Sperm health: Dehydration can lead to lower sperm count and reduced semen volume. Proper hydration helps ensure healthy, viable sperm.
  2. Electrolytes: Electrolyte balance is crucial for sperm motility (movement) and capacitation (the ability to fertilize an egg). Dehydration can disrupt this balance.

How much water should you drink?

The exact amount can vary depending on factors like activity level and climate. A general guideline is around 3 liters (12 cups) per day for men.

Here are some tips to stay hydrated:

  1. Monitor your urine: Aim for clear to light yellow urine. Darker urine indicates dehydration.
  2. Carry a reusable water bottle: This makes it easy to sip throughout the day.
  3. Flavor your water: Add slices of fruits like lemon or cucumber for a refreshing twist.
  4. Eat water-rich fruits and vegetables: Watermelon, cucumber, and tomatoes are all great choices.

Seek Medical Advice:

If you suspect male infertility, consult with a healthcare provider specializing in reproductive medicine. They can conduct tests to identify potential issues and recommend appropriate treatments, such as fertility medications, surgery, or assisted reproductive techniques like intrauterine insemination (IUI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF).


 Male infertility can be a challenging obstacle on the journey to parenthood, but with the right approach, it’s often possible to overcome. By adopting healthy lifestyle habits, managing stress, and seeking medical guidance when needed, men can improve their fertility and increase their chances of conceiving a child with their partner. Remember, fertility is a shared responsibility, and addressing male infertility is a crucial step towards building a family.


What to do if a male is infertile?

Male infertility is the inability of a man to get his partner pregnant. There are many causes of male infertility, including low sperm count, poor sperm quality, and blockages in the reproductive tract.

If you think you might be infertile, there are a few things you can do:

  1. See a doctor. A doctor can do a semen analysis to check your sperm count and quality. They can also ask you about your medical history and lifestyle habits.
  2. Make lifestyle changes. There are a number of lifestyle changes that can improve sperm health, such as quitting smoking, eating a healthy diet, and exercising regularly.
  3. Consider treatment. There are a number of treatments available for male infertility, depending on the cause. Treatment options include medication, surgery, and assisted reproductive technologies (ART) such as in vitro fertilization (IVF).

How to create healthy sperm?

There’s no single way to “create” healthy sperm, but there are definitely lifestyle changes that can contribute to overall sperm health. Here are some things you can focus on:

  1. Healthy habits: This is a big one. Maintaining a healthy weight, eating a balanced diet rich in fruits and vegetables, and exercising regularly can all improve sperm quality.
  2. Exercise: Aim for regular exercise, but avoid too much, as that can have the opposite effect.
  3. Diet: Focus on whole foods and limit processed foods, unhealthy fats, and sugary drinks.
  4. Weight management: Being overweight or obese can affect sperm health.
  5. Reduce smoking and alcohol: Smoking and excessive alcohol consumption can both negatively impact sperm count and quality.
  6. Stress management: Chronic stress can affect hormone levels and sperm production. Look for healthy ways to manage stress, like yoga or meditation.
  7. Supplements: Some studies suggest that certain vitamins and minerals, like zinc, vitamin D, and folic acid, might be beneficial. However, talk to your doctor before taking any supplements.
  8. Keep it cool: Testicles need to be cooler than the rest of your body for sperm production. Avoid tight-fitting underwear and hot tubs.

How do you know that a man is infertile?

There’s no one-size-fits-all answer to this question. In many cases, there are no outward signs of male infertility.  A couple may be trying to conceive for well over a year without success before ever suspecting an issue.

However, there are certain factors that can indicate a possibility of infertility in men. These include:

  1. Inability to conceive after one year of trying: This is generally the rule of thumb used by medical professionals. If you and your partner have been having regular, unprotected sex for a year and haven’t conceived, it’s recommended to see a doctor to get checked.
  2. Sexual problems: Erectile dysfunction, low libido, or difficulty ejaculating can all be signs of underlying hormonal issues that can affect fertility.
  3. Testicular problems: Pain, swelling, or lumps in the testicles can all be indicative of problems that can affect sperm production or health.
  4. Medical history: Certain medical conditions, such as undescended testicles, varicocele (enlarged veins in the scrotum), or prior surgeries in the groin or testicles, can increase the risk of infertility.

The only definitive way to diagnose male infertility is through testing. A semen analysis is the primary tool used to evaluate male fertility. It examines the sperm count, motility (movement), and morphology (shape).  Blood tests may also be conducted to check hormone levels and rule out other medical conditions.


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